Resume The Closing of The Muslim Mind

Muslim atau peradaban Islam mengalami krisis takkala meninggalkan filsafat demi memeluk dogma. Penyebab utama adalah merajanya dahan Asy’ari terutama pada tangan Imam Al-Gazali.
Serangan terhadap filsafat dan pintu ijtihad yang “ditutup”. Sehingga hukum yang semula mampu beradaptasi di berbagai wilayah (baru) dan kondisi sosial menjadi beku, kaku, dan seragam. (p.7)

Filsafat dengan dogma serta hukum sipil dengan hukum tuhan sulit berada dalam satu harmoni.

Ada dua cara mendasar untuk menutup pikiran. Pertama dengan menyangkan kemampuan akal untuk mengetahui segala sesuatu. Kedua adalah menganggap realitas sebagai sesuatu yang tidak dapat diketahui (misteri, mistis). Keduanya dilakukan oleh dahan Asy’ari.

Disangkalnya hukum kausalitas oleh Asyariyah menimbulkan masalah bagi peradaban.

he Muslim mind has created the crisis of which modern Islamist terrorism is only one manifestation. The problem is much broader and deeper. It enfolds Islam’s loss of science and of the prospect of indigenously developing democratic constitutional government. It is the key to unlocking such puzzles as why the Arab world stands near the bottom of every measure of human development; why scientific inquiry is nearly moribund in the Islamic world; why Spain translates more books in a single year than the entire Arab world has in the past thousand years; why some people in Saudi Arabia still refuse to believe man has been to the moon; and why some Muslim media present natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina as God’s direct retribution. Without understanding
this story, we cannot grasp what is taking place in the Islamic world today, or the potential paths to recovery—paths many Muslims are pointing to with their rejection of the idea of God that produced
this crisis in the first place. (p.11)

Situasi bangsa Arab pra-Islam yang jahiliyah. Muhammad saw muncul dan menanamkan kesatuan, unity, tauhid DAN da’wah, menyebarkan Islam, jihad.

At the same time, Islam divinely sanctioned a kind of mega-tribal raiding of the rest of the non-Muslim world. “Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] . . . and other booty, over which ye have not yet had power: but God compassed them for you” (Qur’an 48:20–21). According to this new revelation, it was now only right and just that non-Muslims should be subdued and ruled by the true followers of God. How to conduct these raids and divide the booty from them is
an important part of the Qur’an (Qur’an 8: The Spoils; 59:6 The Mustering). The first biographies of Muhammad were titled kitab al-meghazi, the Book of Raids. (p.14)

Perpindahan ibukota dari Madinah ke Kufah lalu ke Damaskus berdampak pada pertemuan budaya di luar Islam-Arab (Yunani, Kristen, pemikiran Helenik) dengan budaya Islam-Arab. The initial Muslim interest in the Greek sciences was in practical matters such as medicine, mathematics, natural science, alchemy, and astrology. (p.15) Orang ‘asing’ ( dalam konteks asing bagi bangsa Arab) ini menguasai filsafat dan perdebatan dengan Muslim tentang masalah-masalah keimanan (teologi/kalam) tak terhindarkan. Ada pula orang ‘asing’ ini yang menguasai ilmu filsafat kemudian berpindah agama menjadi Muslim dan memberi pengaruh dan berdebat dengan pihak lain menggunakan filsafat. Jadi, pada masa khulafaur rasyidun dan awal Umayyah, penggunaan akal untuk membicarakan masalah agama telah terjadi akibat masuknya Muslim ke dalam wilayah yang telah dipengaruhi oleh pemikiran Helenistik, Yunani.

Qadariyah vs Jabariyah. Two Qadarite theologians, Ma’bad al-Juhani (d. 699) and Ghailan al-Dimashqi (d.before 743), were executed by the Umayyads for their defense of free will, which was considered subversive and a direct challenge to the Umayyad theological rationalization of its atrocities. Jahm bin Safwan (d.745 M semasa dengan Hasan Al-Basri).

Ada yang beranggapan pihak Umayyah menggunakan ide Jabariyah untuk melanggengkan kekuasaan, The Umayyad caliphs ruling in Damascus enjoyed the sanction provided by the Jabariyya doctrine because it excused them from responsibility for any unjust acts… As such, out of piety, their subjects should accept, or at least ignore, their misdeeds (which included an attack on the Ka’ba). In order to secure his power, Umayyad Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik brought one of his rivals, ‘Amr ibn Sa’id, into the palace under false pretenses, beheaded him, and then had his head tossed to his awaiting crowd of supporters with the announcement that “the Commander of the Faithful has killed your leader, as it was foreordained in God’s inalterable decree.” 11 The erstwhile supporters of Ibn Sa’id then paid obeisance to the caliph. (p.18)

Ide-ide yang berkembang di masyarakat digunakan oleh penguasa entah untuk melanggengkan kekuasaan atau sebagai dalih untuk menghabisi lawan.

Peralihan Umayyah ke Abbasiyah ‘mengakhiri’ ide jabariyah karena Abbasiyah mengambil ide Qadariyah yang diwujudkan oleh Mu’tazilah. When he acceded to the throne, al-Ma’mun took the title of imam, and chose a Shi‘a as his successor. These actions clearly implied a claim on his part that he also had the authority to interpret Islamic scripture, and perhaps even to amend it. The Mu‘tazilite teaching that the freedom of man also meant the freedom to interpret sacred texts reinforced this claim from another direction. // The freedom to interpret revelation was based upon the Mu‘tazilite teaching, shocking to the traditionalists, that the Qur’an was created in time. The standard orthodox belief was that the Qur’an is uncreated and exits coeternally with Allah. If the Qur’an was created, it is subject to rational criteria. If it is subject to rational criteria, it is not the exclusive domain of the ulema. An uncreated
Qur’an would not allow for this interpretive freedom. Caliph al-Ma’mun knew that the teaching of a created Qur’an and of man’s free will would enhance his authority and undermine that of the traditionalist ulema. Therefore, he sponsored the Mu‘tazilites. He also genuinely embraced their views because he was fascinated by philosophy.(p.18)

Abu al-Hudhayl (d. 849), who helped to formalize Mu‘tazilite teachings in Basra, Iraq. (p.19) Mu‘tazilite writer and theologian ‘Uthman al-Jahiz (776–869)

Aql vs Naql

Kejayaan Mu’tazilah di era Abbasiyah awal adalah kejayaan aql dan kejatuhan naql (tradisi). Kejayaan tradisi adi era Abbasiyah tengah-akhir adalah kejatuhan akal.

According to the traditionalists, whatever inconsistencies may appear in the Qur’an must simply be accepted without questioning. Malik ibn Anas (715–795), founder of one of the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, addressed the anthropomorphisms, which include Allah “sitting upon the
throne” (7:54; 20:5), by purportedly saying: “The sitting is known, its modality is unknown. Belief in it is an obligation and raising questions regarding it is a heresy [bid‘ah].”22 This is the classic Hanbalite-Ash‘arite formula of bila kayfa wala tashbih (without inquiring how and without making comparison). (p. 22)

Al-Ma’mun was the greatest supporter of Greek thought in Islamic history and the creator of the famous Bait al-Hikmah, the House of Wisdom, a great library and translation center, which opened in 830. (.28)

It was also under al-Ma’mun’s patronage that the first Muslim Arab philosopher, Abu Ya‘qub al-Kindi (801–873), appeared…. Like the Mu‘tazilites, al-Kindi achieved a harmony between reason and revelation by giving an allegorical interpretation to any passage from Qur’an that seemed to contradict reason. At the same time, he defended the Islamic doctrines of the creation of the world ex nihilo and of the resurrection of the body.(p.29)

Al-Ma’mun’s pronouncement of a created Qur’an as state doctrine did not go unopposed. The caliph required religious judges to swear an oath that the Qur’an had been created. A kind of inquisition, the mihnah (the testing), was instituted to enforce this (from 833–848). (p.30)

After al-Ma’mun, Mu‘tazilite doctrine was upheld by the next two caliphs, al-Mu‘tasim (833–842) and Harun al-Wathiq (842–847), although without al-Ma’mun’s enthusiasm. (p.30)

In the second year of the reign of Caliph Ja’afar al-Mutawakkil (847–861), the tables were turned. The mihnah was shut down and the Mu‘tazilite judges responsible for the inquisition were cursed from the pulpits by name.1 Holding the Mu‘tazilite doctrine became a crime punishable by death. The Mu‘tazilites were expelled from court, removed from all government positions, and their works were largely destroyed. Al-Mutawakkil released the aged Ibn Hanbal from prison and prohibited
“discussing the intricacies of what is created and what is uncreated in a copy or vocal recitation of the Qur’an.” 2 He also closed down al-Ma’mun’s House of Wisdom (though he is credited by some
with reopening it and supporting scientific research and translation activity). Despite his religious orthodoxy, al-Kindi was persecuted and driven from Baghdad. 3 Al-Mutawakkil confiscated al-Kindi’s library, and the sixty-year-old philosopher was administered sixty lashes before an approving crowd. (p.31)

Some Mu‘tazilites fled to the more hospitable Shi‘a areas under the Buwayhid rulers in eastern Persia.(.31)

Ibn Hanbal thought that religion was better off without theology. Since God has spoken to man, man no longer needs to think in any critical fashion. Revelation replaces reason. In the Qur’an and the Sunnah (practices of the Prophet, or his way and deeds), Allah provided all that men needed to know; it was unnecessary to consider anything else.(p.34, baca kutipan Imam Ahmad)

[Apakah para Imam ini sudah menjadi Nabi baru dalam pengertian ummat Islam hakekatnya mengikuti para Imam bukan Muhammad saw yang justru diutus oleh Allah?]

Sunni versi: Mu’tazilah, Maturidiyah, Asy’ariyah, Ibn Hanbal. Yang terakhir sama sekali tidak menggunakan akal (qiyas dan ra’y) melainkan taqlid (imitation).

The Ash‘arite view developed a theological basis for the primacy of will by claiming that the revelation of Muhammad emphasizes most particularly, and above all, two attributes of God: His uncompromising omnipotence and will. “Allah does what He wills” (Qu’ran 14:27). God’s nature is His will. He is “the great Doer of what He wills” and “Effecter of what He intends” (Qur’an 85:15). (p.37)

If God is pure will, then He is incomprehensible. There are two reasons for this. One is the doctrine of tanzih, which refers to God’s absolute transcendence and utter incomparability. There is no correspondence at all between God and His creation. (p.38)

Al-Ash‘ari elaborated a metaphysics to support his voluntaristic theology. This metaphysics had profound implications for causality, epistemology, and human freedom. (p.41)

Dampak teologi Asy’ari, hilangnya: kausalitas (sebab-akibat), epistemologi, moralitas obyektif, keadilan, kebebasan kehendak (free will).

Masa kejayaan Asy’ariyah: When the Hanbalites had the upper hand in Baghdad under vizier al-Kundri, Friday prayers included curses against the Ash‘arites. Around 1063, however, Nizam al-Mulk, the powerful vizier to Seljuk sultan Alp-Arslan, had the curses stopped. According to British Islam scholar W. Montgomery Watt, al-Mulk also “began to implement a policy of supporting and strengthening the Ash‘arites against the other theological and legal schools.”1 In 1067, al-Mulk opened a college in Baghdad, the Nizamiyya, to propagate Ash‘arite teachings, and founded at least eight more in places ranging from Mosul to Herat. “Thus,” concludes Watt, “Ash‘arite theology became the form of Islamic doctrine
supported by the government.”2 In 1077, al-Ghazali began his studies at the Nizamiyya college in Nishapur, where he remained until 1085. Later, from 1091 to 1095, al-Ghazali served as the head of the Nizamiyya college in Baghdad. (p.59)

Serangan Al-Gazali terhadap filsafat, posisi keraguan, dan tasawuf sebagai solusi sehingga intuisi menjadi pengganti akal. Kemenangan Kehendak Allah, hilangnya realitas.

‘Rivalitas’: Mu’tazilah (filosof, Ibn Rusyd), Asy’ariyah (Al-Gazali), Hanbaliyah (Ibn Taimiyah).

 

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